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Please don’t erase or report this till Sunday, I am sorry but I am out of options, I am not registered with any blogs or message boards where I can do this, and I cant put it on a disk or print it, printers broken and labtop doesn’t use disks/files. I need this report just here till Sunday here….thank you. (I have contributed reviews in the past.)
Ancient Egypt is practically the earliest known civilization of great influence and prosperity that has set the basis for many aspects of human culture and civilization after its peak. In this paper, I will show how tombs relate significantly to the development and the overall culture of the Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt. Along with comparisons to other eras and kingdoms of ancient Egypt; I will start my paper with the subjects of death and the idea of tombs in the Old Kingdom, then work into the subjects of kingship and religion along with the Stepped Pyramid of Djoser,
Death, kingship, and religion are the most identifiable subjects of the Old kingdoms’ culture and life as a whole, with tombs bearing important aspects of all three subjects. The Old Kingdom is widely believed to be from the third dynast to the sixth (2575-2134 bce). The history of tombs in ancient Egypt goes as far back as the Pre-Dynastic Egypt. The Old Kingdom Egyptians took a view of life quite different from most other civilizations in the world. They placed an odd amount of time in designing and building their tombs to comparatively dwarf the size and grandeur of their current living quarters and houses. This is because life was relatively short and strenuous for ancient Egyptians trying to prosper under the hot sun, even in the highly prosperous Old Kingdom. And so with that, along with Egyptian religion as a guideline, they placed heavy emphasis in preparing for an eternity in the afterlife that came with rituals and tombs and mummification.
This Egyptian afterlife, if not at least tolerable compared to their past life, was supposed to be a blissful paradise for their ka compared to their past life. Ka is the word for the Egyptians’ spirit/soul that stays in their body during their life and leaves the body for an afterlife upon death, so long as their corpses stayed fairly preserved (undestroyed and undisturbed) in their burial grounds. This tomb and housing “scale” was used by both the royalty of the Old Kingdom and the lower to middle classes as well. In other words, Egyptian tombs were meant to last with the original designs to preserve the corpses in peace for the sake of their afterlife, while their homes on the other hand could be improved or replaced if the need came up during an Egyptians’ lifetime.
One important fact of tombs relating to the development of the Old Kingdom was in the division in classes relating to the types of tombs Egyptians made for themselves and others. Pre-Dynastic and Dynastic tombs were all pretty much pit graves of different value. The name pit grave came from the fact that these tombs were basically square holes in the ground of the desert sand. They would be dug further underground, constructed with a lining of wood or stone, or contain multiple rooms and relics/treasures if the occupier had some level of wealth or higher class in his lifetime. Now, the pit graves prospered through the Dynastic era into the Old Kingdom, but the Old Kingdom reserved them, and even the higher class pit graves, for the poor and middle classes only. The Dynastic era designed middle and higher class tombs that were later deemed the earliest examples of Mastabas. Mastabas were the rectangular, decorative structures found above the tombs, which were in much higher quantity during the Old Kingdom and reserved for royalties and rulers. In the Old Kingdom, Mastabas had a separated room called a Serdab in which statues of the tombs’ owner and his family were placed. The earliest Mastabas are found at Gizeh, Saqqara and Tarkhan.
The above information on death and tombs of ancient Egypt brings me to my first example of the highly influential tombs of the Old Kingdom, the Stepped Pyramid of Djoser. The shift in classes and technology in tombs went from all types of pit graves in the Pre-dynastic era, to pit graves and early Mastabas in the Dynastic era, to pit graves and Mastabas and pyramids in the Old Kingdom. Another aspect shown to us is how lower class corpses in lower class tombs were found lying on their side in the fetal position buried with only a few possessions (like a bit of food and water in a vase with a tool and bracelet) for them to keep in the afterlife. While Mastabas and higher class pit graves were dug long enough so that the corpse could lie on its back facing the sky/sun and were buried with not only practical tools and vases, but goods like more than one pieces of jewelry, currency, and sometimes even a servant for the afterlife. Now, there was diversity in the classes of Egyptian people of the Dynastic era and the diversity related to their tombs and their afterlife as well, but the Old Kingdoms’ greater prosperity, cultural development, and diversity compared to the Dynastic era is exemplified with the Stepped Pyramid of Djoser from the early third dynasty. It was obviously built for the Pharaoh Djoser by his highly regarded Vizier Imhotep and was built at the Saqqara necropolis northwest of the city of Memphis. This structure is composed of six Mastabas, with its overall shape decreasing upwards in typical pyramid fashion of the later times, which show an example of the Old Kingdom greatly improving on previous ideas since the stacked Mastabas of the Djoser pyramid were built on top of and after the first Mastabas/level. The outer facings of the building were composed of native Tura-limestone (though it had been stripped in the past of most of its limestone) and the inner core is of stone. While some might not think at first of its stone composure as anything special, it indeed is an attribute worthy of recognition simply because the Djoser Pyramid is the first building in ancient Egypt built with more than just a room or small region made mostly of stone. Stone became much more abundantly used in later architectural structures through the ancient Egyptian eras because of it is much stronger than mud-bricks, the building material most commonly used through out all of the ancient Egyptian eras.
In Gran Turismo 4, the characteristics of the cars are realistically designed and calculated so that they handle to the "real-life" physics of that particular vehicle, taking into account weight, speed, friction, wind, and more. To further enhance the realism of the driving experience, new technology blends real-time action with a photo-fixed background to immerse you in real-life environments such as New York City, the Grand Canyon and others. Highly detailed vehicles and environment mapping create broadcast-quality graphics, from light and competitor car reflections on the your automobile to leaves on a tree shaking in the wind.